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NOUN

DEFINITION & TYPES

Nouns refer to persons, places, animals, events, things, or ideas, etc. Nouns cover most of the words of a language.

A Noun can be a/an –

  • Person – a name for a person: – Bharat, Rohan, Ram, Ananya, Tarun, etc.
  • Animal – a name for an animal: – goat, elephant, cow, dog, etc.
  • Place – a name for a place: – Delhi, Maharashtra, Kerala, Mumbai, etc.
  • Thing – a name for a thing: – pen, bat, chair, book, gun, laptop, etc.
  • Idea – A name for an idea: – sadness, superstition, happiness, excitement, etc.

Examples of Noun as a Part of Speech:

  1. Anish is a wonderful player.
  2. Delhi Daredevils is the team he plays for.
  3. He was not born in that country.
  4. Nepal is the city he lives in.
  5. He is a man of dreams.
  6. The bat is made of wood, obtained from a tree.
  7. My brother has a mobile phone.
  8. The phone is made of plastic
  9. I need some water for the cake.
  10. The ball is under the table.
  11. There is also a pencil and a diary on the table.
  12. Truthfulness is rare nowadays.
  13. Honesty depends mostly on truthfulness.
  14. The cat used to eat many cookies every day.
  15. I have a pencil, a few books, a pen, a table calendar, and a computer on my desk.

There are 7 types of the noun:

  1. PROPER NOUN
  2. COMMON NOUN
  3. ABSTRACT NOUN
  4. CONCRETE NOUN
  5. COUNTABLE NOUN
  6. UNCOUNTABLE NOUN
  7. COLLECTIVE NOUN

PROPER NOUN:

proper noun is a name that refers only to a single person, place, or thing and there is no common name for it. A proper noun will always begin with capital letters.

Example: Mumbai (it refers to only one particular city), Sachin (refers to a particular person),

Delhi (there is no other country named Delhi; this name is fixed for only one country).

  • Ravi is a wonderful player.
  • He was born in a village near Rajasthan.
  • He moved to a beautiful city in Delhi when he was young.
  • He lives in a small village near Ganga.
  • He plays for Delhi in the IPL.
  • Mohan is his mentor.
  • He has a house across the Ganga River.
  • He goes for a walk by a big river every Monday.
  • His friend Ranveer accompanies him.
  • Anushka was born in India.
  • He is a fan of Rajnikant and the movie Kabali.
  • He has a dog named Aadhi.

COMMON NOUN:

common noun is a name for something common for many things, people, or places. It refers to a particular type of thing, person, or place.

Example: Country (it can refer to any country, nothing in particular), city (it can refer to any city like Telangana, Mumbai, Andhra Pradesh, etc but nothing in particular).

So, a common noun is a word that indicates a person, place, thing, etc. In general, a proper noun is a specific one of those.

Definition of Common Noun:

A common noun is a name for a type of thing, person, species, etc. which denotes a usual name for something.

Example of Common Noun:

  • Ravi is a wonderful player.
  • Kings 11 Punjab is the team he plays for.
  • He was not born in a village near Hyderabad.
  • Hyderabad is the city he lives in.
  • He is a man of dreams.
  • He plays cricket with his friend.
  • Mohan is his mentor.
  • He has a house across the river.
  • He goes for a walk by the silent river every day.
  • His friend accompanies him to the night party.
  • They talk about movies and web series every day.
  • He is a fan of Rajnikant and the movie Kabali.
  • He has a bike and a car also.

ABSTRACT NOUN:

An abstract noun is a word for something that cannot be seen but is present there. It does not have any physical existence. Generally, it refers to qualities, ideas, and conditions.

Example: Truth, time, happiness, humor, Lies, sorrow, patriotism, friendship, etc.

Definition of Abstract Noun:

An abstract noun is a name for something intangible.

Example:

  • Truthfulness is a quality that is rare nowadays.
  • Honesty depends mostly on truthfulness.
  • Childhood is the best time to enjoy life.
  • Different people may have different opinionsideas, and beliefs.
  • But some virtues receive a universal acknowledgment.
  • Courage, bravery, perseveranceintelligence, honesty, etc. are the best of virtues.
  • Kindness, justness, optimism, faithfulness, fidelity, etc. are also good virtues.
  • There are also some commonly acknowledged vices.
  • Dishonesty, infidelity, treachery, pessimism, brutality, etc. are some of the vices.
  • Hatred, vengefulness, malice, spitefulnesscruelty, etc. are some of the negative qualities.

CONCRETE NOUN:

concrete/ material noun is the exact opposite of an abstract noun. It refers to the things we can see and have physical existence.

Example: Chair, bat, table, sugar, water, ball, money, etc.

Definition of Material Noun:

A material noun is a name for something tangible.

Example:

  • I have a cricket bat.
  • The bat is made of wood from a tree.
  • My brother has a mobile phone.
  • The ring is made of precious metal.
  • I need some water because I am thirsty.
  • The pen is on my desk.
  • There is also a pen and a diary on it.
  • The pen is out of ink.
  • Your shirt has button shorts.
  • This ring is made of gold and diamond.
  • The bricks are free on this wall.

COUNTABLE NOUN:

The nouns that can be counted are called countable nouns. Countable nouns can take an article: a, an, the.

Example: Chair, table, bat, ball, etc. (you could say 1 chair, 2 chairs, 3 chairs – so chairs are countable)

Definition of Countable Noun

A noun that can be counted in cardinal numbers (1, 2, 3 . . .) is called a countable noun.

Example Countable Noun:

  • I bought a book on neurology.
  • The book has 269 pages in it.
  • It has 39 chapters in it.
  • Each chapter covers 5 topics.
  • Alex has four pencils.
  • He also has three erasers.
  • He has a car.
  • The car contains four seats.
  • He had a cat when he was young.
  • The cat used to eat a cookie every day.
  • I even have a phone, a few books, a notepad, a table calendar, and a computer on my desk.
  • I love to pay attention to songs when I work.
  • How many times did I let you know to do this?
  • I did it many times when I was young.
  • Bring me a glass of water.

NON-COUNTABLE NOUN:

The nouns that cannot be counted are called non-countable nouns.

Example: Water, sugar, oil, salt, etc. (you cannot say “1 water, 2 water, 3 water” because water is not countable)

Abstract nouns and proper nouns are continually uncountable nouns, but common nouns and concrete nouns can be both count and non-count nouns.

Definition of Uncountable Noun:

A noun that cannot be counted with cardinal numbers is called an uncountable noun.

Example Uncountable Noun:

  • I need some drinking water.
  • Have some juice, please.
  • Do you need some gas for your car?
  • We need a variety of cash for the business.
  • Do you want some milk?
  • I need some riceroticream, and oil.
  • Do you drink espresso or tea in the morning?
  • Can you please test the salt of the curry?
  • I would like to have some gulab jamun after lunch.
  • How much time do you need?
  • I need some more time.
  • Bring me a cup of soup.

COLLECTIVE NOUN:

collective noun is a word for a group of things, people, or animals, etc.

Example: family, crew, jury, cattle, etc.

Collective nouns can be both plural and singular. However, Americans prefer to use collective nouns as singular, but both of the uses are accurate in other parts of the world.

Compound Noun:

Sometimes two or three nouns appear together, or even with other parts of speech, and create idiomatic compound nouns. Idiomatic methods that those nouns behave as a unit and, to a lesser or extra degree, amount to more than the sum of their parts.

Example: six-pack, five-year-old, and son-in-law, snowball, mailbox, etc.

FUNCTIONS OF NOUNS

Nouns can be used as a subject, a direct object, and an indirect object of a verb; as an object of a preposition; and as an adverb or adjective in sentences. Nouns can also show possession.

Subject: The company is doing great. Roses are the flowers of love.

Direct object: I finally bought a new mobile.

Indirect object: Rudra gave Rani another chocolate.

The object of a preposition: Roses are the flowers of love.

Adverb: The train leaves today.

Adjective: The office building faces the mall.

Possession: The lion’s cage is dangerous. My brother’s daughter is adorable.

RULES OF NOUN

RULE-1

The nouns such as – Jury, choir, committee, council, crowd, herd, orchestra, crew, government, mob, community, union, club, opposition, firm, flock, etc. are used as collective nouns to denote a group. They are considered to be singular and a singular verb is used with them.

Example

The committee has submitted its report.

RULE-2

The unit of measurement (such as – hour, pound, kilo, mile…etc.) is continually used in the singular form in the structure –‘Half + a/an + unit of measurement’; as, ‘Half a kilo’, ‘Half an hour.

Note: The unit of measurement (such as – hour, pound, kilo, mile…etc.) is also used in the singular form in the structure – ‘A + half + unit of measurement’; as, ‘A half kilo’, ‘A half hour’.

Example

Only half an hour left to complete this work.

RULE-3

A plural noun is used after ‘one and a half; as ‘One and a half kilos’

While ‘A/An + singular noun + and + a half’ is used in the English Language; as,

‘A kilo and a half kilos’,

‘An hour and a half.

RULE-4

The structure – ‘Numeral Adjectives + plural noun + and + a half’ or Numeral Adjectives + and + a half + plural noun is used in the English Language. Numeral Adjectives: One, two, three, four…..etc. some, all, many, few…..etc. are called Numeral Adjectives; as,

‘Two kilos and a half’ ‘Five hours and a half’ ‘Two and a half kilos’.

RULE-5

A plural noun is used after ‘Cardinal Adjectives except one’. Cardinal Adjectives: One, two, three, four, five, six….etc. are called Cardinal Adjectives; as ‘Five kilometres’

Example

I even have fifty rupees.

RULE-6

Generally, the plural of a proper noun isn’t always possible. But the plural of a proper noun may be formed (=made) by adding ‘s’ according to need.

Example

There are two Mohans in my class.

RULE-7

These nouns such as – barracks, corps, crossroads, Innings, headquarters, précis, series, species, Issue, offspring, aircraft, craft, swine are used in the same form both singular and plural.

Example

All the police barracks of Gorakhpur are old.

RULE-8

The structure – ‘Noun + preposition + same noun’ is continually used in the singular. A singular noun is continually used before preposition and after a preposition; as’

Example

Village after village has been swept away.

RULE-9

A plural noun or a plural pronoun is used after these phrases – one of, each of, either of, neither of, any one of, a few of, some of, very few of, half of, a lot of, a variety of, a large number of, etc.

Example

One of the men was innocent.

RULE-10

If we add ‘s’ or ‘es’ to some Adjectives, they become plural nouns; as’

Example

We have to taste the sweets and bitters of our lives.

RULE-11

Some nouns continually remain in plural form. They take plural verbs. These nouns have no singular form. These are –

Assets, alms, amends, annals, archives, ashes, arrears, athletics, auspices, species, scissors, trousers, pants. clippers, bellows, gallows, fangs, measles, eyeglasses, goggles, belongings, breeches. Bowels, braces, binoculars, dregs, earnings, entrails, embers, fetters, fireworks, longings, lees, odds, outskirts, particulars, proceeds, proceedings, riches, remains shambles, shears, spectacles, surroundings, tidings, tactics, tongs, vegetables, valuables, wages, etc.

Means’ — In the sense of income’. Means continually take a plural verb. In the sense of achieving some end, Means takes a singular verb. When ‘a’ or ‘every’ is used before Means’, it is singular.

Examples

(a) My methods were reduced substantially.

(b) Every method is good if the end is good.

RULE-12

If two adjectives are joined by ‘and’ and ‘The’ is used before the first adjective, A plural noun is used after the second Adjective is used.

Example

Dr S.S. Prasad was an examiner of the Patna and Bihar universities.

Incorrect: Dr S.S. Prasad was an examiner of Patna and Bihar university.

RULE-13

If two adjectives are joined by ‘and’ and ‘The’ used before both Adjectives or each Adjective, A singular noun is used after the second Adjectives are used.

Example

The first and the second chapter of this book are interesting.

Incorrect: The first and the second chapters of this book are interesting.

RULE-14

Some nouns look plural in form but have a singular meaning. Such nouns take singular verbs. These are news, innings, politics, summons, physics, economics, ethics. mechanics, mathematics, measles, mumps, rickets, billiards, draughts, etc.

RULE-15

Some nouns look singular but have a plural meaning. Such nouns take plural verbs. These are cattle, clergy, cavalry, infantry, poultry, peasantry, children, gentry, police, etc.

RULE-16

Some nouns are always singular. These are uncountable nouns. We should not use article A/An with such nouns. These are –

Scenery, poetry, furniture, advice, information, hair, language. business, mischief, bread, stationery, crockery, luggage, baggage, postage, knowledge, wastage, money, jewellery, breakage, etc,

We can not pluralize such nouns by adding `S’ or ‘es’.

Example It is incorrect to write sceneries, information, furniture, hairs.

RULE-17

Some nouns are continually singular. If a definite numeral adjective is used before them they are not pluralized. e.g., pair, score. Gross, stone, hundred, dozen, thousand. million. billion. etc.

Otherwise, these nouns can well be pluralized:

Dozens of women, Hundreds of people, Millions of dollars, Scores of shops. Many pairs of shoes, thousands of millions, etc.

RULE-18

If a numeral adjective and a fraction are used with a noun, the noun is used with the numeral and the noun will be singular.

Examples

(a) He gave me one rupee and a half.

(b) She gave me rupees and a quarter.

Avoid the following structure

Examples

(a) He gave me one and a half rupees. (Incorrect).

(b) She gave the rupees and a quarter rupees. (Incorrect)

If the numeral adjective and the fraction refer to the multiplication, the noun is placed in the end (after the fraction) and it must be plural.

Examples

(a) Your deposits have grown two and a half times within two years.

(b) My revenue has increased three and a quarter times within three years.

RULE-19

Some nouns are known as common gender nouns. They can be used for either sex; Male or Female. These are called dual-gender nouns. Such nouns are teacher, student, child, clerk, the candidate. advocate, worker, writer, author, leader, musician, politician, enemy, client, president, person, neighbour, etc. When these are used in the singular, use third-person singular masculine (his) pronouns with them.

Examples

(a) Every candidate should write his ( not her) name.

(b) Every person should perform his ( not her) duty.

Each, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, neither, anybody is also common gender pronouns.

RULE-20

Some nouns are used specifically for the feminine gender only. i.e., blonde, maid, midwife, coquette, virgin, etc.

Nowadays nouns ‘bachelor’ and ‘virgin’ are getting used for masculine and feminine gender as well.

Use of Apostrophe with ‘s’

(A) You can form the possessive case of a singular noun that does not end in ‘s’ by adding an apostrophe and `s’ We should use an apostrophe in the following situations only

(1) Living things -> Mohan’s book

(2) Thing personified; as —> week’s holiday

(3) Space-time or weight; as —> a day’s leave

(4) Certain dignified objects; as

The court’s orders

At duty’s call

(5) Familiar phrases; as —

At his wit’s end

At a stone’s throw

If there are hissing sounds (sounds of sh or s) ending a word, use apostrophe without ‘s’ with such words. e.g., For Gods’ sake, For conscience’ sake, The roses’ fragrance, etc. (It can be noted that if we use an apostrophe with s with such words it couldn’t be pronounced well)

(B) You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in ‘s’ by adding an apostrophe and an ‘s,’ as in the following example.

Example: The men’s cricket crew will play as soon as possible.

(C) You can form the possessive case of a plural noun that does end in ‘s’ by adding an apostrophe.

Example: The concert was interrupted by the ‘dogs’ barking, the ‘ducks’ quacking, and the ‘babies’ squalling.

(D) Do not use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns

i.e., his, hers, yours, mine, ours, its, theirs, etc.

Yours faithfully, yours truly, our garden, his pen, her purse, their room.

(E) Use the apostrophe with the last word in the following titles.

Examples

(a) Governor’s instructions.

(b) Commander-in-chief’s orders.

(c) My son-in-law’s father-in-law.

(d) Ramesh and Sons’s shop.

(F) Do not use ‘Double apostrophe’. Avoid double apostrophes in a sentence.

Example

(a) My wife’s best friend’s mom has expired. (Incorrect)

The mom of my wife’s best friend has expired recently. (Correct)

(G) Apostrophe with ‘s’ is used with; Anybody/ Nobody / Everybody / Somebody / Anyone / Someone / No one / Everyone.

Example: Everyone’s concern about the 10th result.

If else is used after these words, use an apostrophe with else as per the following:

For example, I can rely on your words, not somebody else’s.

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