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PAST TENSE

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

SIMPLE PAST TENSE WITH AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • POSITIVE: SUB + WAS/WERE + OBJECT (BE VERB)
  • POSITIVE: SUB + HAD (2ND FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT (TO HAVE)
  • POSITIVE: SUB + VERB 2 + OBJECT (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(BE VERB)

  • I was insane. (I – WAS)
  • She was gorgeous. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS)
  • We were exhausted. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE)

(TO HAVE)

  • I had an umbrella. (I – HAD)
  • He had a machine. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD)
  • We had a puppy. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I scolded you last Friday. (I – VERB 2)
  • He shopped some dresses for me. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- VERB 2)
  • They caught a robber yesterday. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- VERB 2)

SIMPLE PAST TENSE WITH NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • NEGATIVE: SUB + WAS/WERE + NOT + OBJECT (BE VERB)
  • NEGATIVE: SUB + DID NOT + HAVE + OBJECT (TO HAVE)
  • NEGATIVE: SUB + DID NOT + VERB 1 + OBJECT(ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(BE VERB)

  • I was not insane. (I – WAS NOT)
  • She was not gorgeous. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS NOT)
  • We were not exhausted. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE NOT)

(TO HAVE)

  • I did not have an umbrella. (I – DID NOT HAVE)
  • He did not have any machines. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- DID NOT HAVE)
  • We did not have puppies. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- DID NOT HAVE)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I did not scold you last Friday. (I – DID NOT + VERB 1)
  • He did not shop any dresses for me. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- DID NOT + VERB 1)
  • They did not catch a robber yesterday. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- DID NOT + VERB 1)

SIMPLE PAST TENSE WITH INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • INTERROGATIVE: WAS/WERE + SUB + OBJECT? (BE VERB)
  • INTERROGATIVE: DID + SUB + HAVE + OBJECT? (TO HAVE)
  • INTERROGATIVE: DID + SUB + VERB 1 + OBJECT? (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(BE VERB)

  • Was I insane? (I – WAS)
  • Was She gorgeous? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS)
  • Were We exhausted? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE)

(TO HAVE)

  • Did I have an umbrella? (I – DID HAVE)
  • Did he have any machines? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- DID HAVE)
  • Did we have puppies? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- DID HAVE)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • Did I scold you last Friday? (I – DID + VERB 1)
  • Did he shop any dresses for me? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- DID + VERB 1)
  • Did they catch a robber yesterday? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- DID + VERB 1)

USAGES

  1. ACTION COMPLETED IN THE PAST
  • Last night, we all watched Big Boss.
  • Three days back, I went to the market for shopping.
  • I stayed up Last night.
  • Did you complete your assignment yesterday?
  • He did not bring ice cream for me.
  • He drew a beautiful painting for me, on my birthday.
  1. HABITUAL ACTION BY ‘USED TO’ –
  • We used to splash in the puddles while returning home from school.
  • We used to listen to music in our free time.
  • She used to get annoyed easily when she was going through a hard time.
  • Earlier fruits and vegetables used to be fresh as well as pure.
  • I used to live in a joint family before my marriage.
  • Did you use to study hard, when you were a student?

PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE WITH AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • POSITIVE: SUB + WAS/WERE + HAVE + ING + OBJECT (TO HAVE)
  • POSITIVE: SUB + WAS/WERE + VERB + ING + OBJECT (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(TO HAVE)

  • I was having a conversation with her. (I – WAS + HAVE + ING)
  • She was having a basketball game. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS + HAVE + ING)
  • You were arguing. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE + HAVE + ING)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I was chatting with my colleagues. (I – WAS + VERB + ING)
  • He was making fun of his sister. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS + VERB + ING)
  • They were beating a thief. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE + VERB + ING)

PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE WITH NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • NEGATIVE: SUB + WAS/WERE + NOT + HAVE + ING + OBJECT (TO HAVE)
  • NEGATIVE: SUB + + WAS/WERE + VERB + ING + OBJECT (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(TO HAVE)

  • I was not having a conversation with her.(I – WAS NOT + HAVE + ING)
  • She was not having a basketball game. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS NOT + HAVE + ING)
  • You were not arguing. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE NOT + HAVE + ING)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I was not chatting with my colleagues. (I – WAS NOT VERB + ING)
  • He was not making fun of his sister. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS NOT VERB + ING)
  • They were not beating a thief. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE NOT VERB + ING)

PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE WITH INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • INTERROGATIVE: WAS/WERE + SUB + HAVE + ING + OBJECT? (TO HAVE)
  • INTERROGATIVE: + WAS/WERE + SUB + VERB + ING + OBJECT? (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(TO HAVE)

  • Was I having a conversation with her?(I – WAS + HAVE + ING)
  • Was she having a basketball game? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS + HAVE + ING)
  • Were you arguing? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE + HAVE + ING)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • Was I chatting with my colleagues? (I – WAS VERB + ING)
  • Was he making fun of his sister? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- WAS VERB + ING)
  • Were they beating a thief? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- WERE VERB + ING)

USAGES

  1. AN ACTION THAT WAS HAPPENING IN THE PAST AT THE TIME OF SPEAKING. FOR EXAMPLE –
  • My neighbour was racking my mind.
  • My mother was clearing the cobweb.
  • We were enjoying the party.
  1. TWO CONTRASTING ACTIVITIES IN THE PAST WERE IN PROGRESS AT THE SAME TIME. FOR EXAMPLE –
  • Last evening, I was writing an assignment and my child was playing.
  • When he was returning home, I was preparing dinner.
  • She was getting ready for a job while other family members were sleeping.
  1. TO DRAW ATTENTION TO THE REPETITION OF ACTIVITY DURING A PERIOD IN THE PAST. FOR EXAMPLE –
  • She was always dozing during the afternoon.
  • The baby was crying at the time of bathing when winters were there.
  • They were helping my brother when my brother lived at their home.

PAST PERFECT TENSE

PAST PERFECT TENSE WITH AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • POSITIVE: SUB + HAD + BEEN + OBJECT (BE VERB)
  • POSITIVE: SUB + HAD + HAD ( 3rd FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT (TO HAVE)
  • POSITIVE: SUB + HAD + VERB 3 + OBJECT (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(BE VERB)

  • I had been stubborn. (I – HAD + BEEN)
  • It had been successful. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD + BEEN)
  • We had been bored with him. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD + BEEN)

(TO HAVE)

  • I had fought. (I – HAD + HAD)
  • She had had her breakfast. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD + HAD)
  • They had argued with their boss. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD + HAD)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I had learnt the topic. (I – HAD + VERB 3)
  • It had broken before? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD + VERB 3)
  • You had stolen my luggage. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD + VERB 3)

PAST PERFECT TENSE WITH NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • NEGATIVE: SUB + HAD NOT + BEEN + OBJECT (BE VERB)
  • NEGATIVE: SUB + HAD NOT + HAD ( 3rd FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT (TO HAVE)
  • NEGATIVE: SUB + HAD + VERB 3 + OBJECT (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(BE VERB)

  • I had not been stubborn.(I – HAD NOT + BEEN)
  • It had not been successful. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD NOT + BEEN)
  • We had not been bored with him. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD NOT + BEEN)

(TO HAVE)

  • I had not fought.(I – HAD NOT + HAD)
  • She had not had her breakfast. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD NOT + HAD)
  • They had not argued with their boss. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD NOT + HAD)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I had not learnt the topic. (I – HAD NOT + VERB 3)
  • It had not broken before. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD NOT + VERB 3)
  • You had not stolen my luggage. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD NOT + VERB 3)

PAST PERFECT TENSE WITH INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUB + BEEN + OBJECT? (BE VERB)
  • INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUB + HAD ( 3rd FORM OF HAVE) + OBJECT? (TO HAVE)
  • INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUB + VERB 3 + OBJECT? (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(BE VERB)

  • Had I been stubborn? (I – HAD + BEEN)
  • Had it been successful? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD + BEEN)
  • Had we been bored with him? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD + BEEN)

(TO HAVE)

  • had I fought?(I – HAD + HAD)
  • Had she had her breakfast? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD + HAD)
  • Had they argued with their boss? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD + HAD)

(ACTION VERBS)

  • Had I learnt the topic? (I – HAD + VERB 3)
  • Had it broken before? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD + VERB 3)
  • Had you stolen my luggage? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD + VERB 3)

USAGES

  1. TO SHOW THAT AN ACTION HAPPENED BEFORE SOMETHING ELSE IN THE PAST:
  • She stayed up all night because she had received bad news.
  • They lost many of the games because they had not practised enough.
  1. TO SHOW THAT AN ACTION HAPPENED BEFORE A SPECIFIC TIME IN THE PAST:
  • She had established her company before 2008.
  • He had never played football until last week.

(Keep in mind that past perfect tense makes it clear that one thing happened before another in the past. The order of events does not matter since the tense makes it clear which event happened first.)

  1. PAST PERFECT TENSE CAN ALSO BE USED TO SHOW DISSATISFACTION WITH THE PAST.
  • We wished we had purchased the winning ticket.
  • I wished I had told the truth.
  • She wished she had seen her friend.
  • The boy wished he had asked another question.

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE WITH AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • POSITIVE: SUB + HAD + BEEN + VERB + ING + OBJECT (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I had been learning Spanish for 3 years.(I – HAD BEEN + VERB + ING)
  • She had been talking on call for half an hour. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD BEEN + VERB + ING)
  • They had been sitting in the room for 6 hours. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD BEEN + VERB + ING)

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE WITH NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • NEGATIVE: SUB + HAD NOT + BEEN + VERB + ING + OBJECT(ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(ACTION VERBS)

  • I had not been learning Spanish for 3 years.(I – HAD NOT BEEN +VERB + ING)
  • She had not been talking on call for half an hour. (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD NOT BEEN +VERB + ING)
  • They had not been sitting in the room for 6 hours. (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD NOT BEEN +VERB + ING)

PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE WITH INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.

LET’S UNDERSTAND THE RULES

  • INTERROGATIVE: HAD + SUB + BEEN + VERB + ING + OBJECT? (ACTION VERBS)

LET’S SEE THE EXAMPLES

(ACTION VERBS)

  • Had I been learning Spanish for 3 years?(I – HAD BEEN + VERB + ING)
  • Had she been talking on call for half an hour? (HE/ SHE /IT / SINGULAR NOUN- HAD BEEN + VERB + ING)
  • Had they been sitting in the room for 6 hours? (WE/ YOU/THEY/ PLURAL NOUN- HAD BEEN + VERB + ING)

USAGES

  1. AN ACTION THAT HAD BEEN GOING ON FOR SOME TIME IN THE PAST. IT EMPHASISES THE RECENTNESS AND THE DURATION OF A CONTINUOUS ACTIVITY THAT TOOK A PLACE BEFORE A PARTICULAR TIME IN THE PAST.
  • Before moving to NCR they had been living in the downside of India.
  • Tiger had been trying to pounce on prey, relentlessly.
  • My brother had been running from pillar to post in search of a job.
  • Soldiers had been appearing in all tests to prove their endurance.
  • India had been trying to convince Pakistan to stop terrorism.

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