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PRONOUNS

Pronouns update nouns.

An extraordinary pronoun is required depending on two elements: the noun being changed and the function that noun has within the sentence.

In English, pronouns only take the gender of the noun they replace within the 3rd person singular form. The 2nd person plural pronouns are just like the 2nd person singular pronouns apart from the reflexive pronoun.

There are 8 varieties of a pronoun

  1. Personal Pronouns
  2. Possessive Pronouns
  3. Reflexive Pronouns
  4. Intensive Pronouns
  5. Indefinite Pronouns
  6. Demonstrative Pronouns
  7. Interrogative Pronouns
  8. Relative Pronouns
Subject PronounObject PronounPossessive Adjective (Determiner)Possessive PronounReflexive or Intensive Pronoun
1st person singularImeMyminemyself
2nd person singularyouyouYouryoursyourself
3rd person singular, malehehimHishishimself
3rd person singular, femalesheherHerhersherself
3rd person singular, neutralititItsitself
1st person pluralweusOuroursourselves
2nd person pluralyouyouYouryoursyourselves
3rd person pluraltheythemTheirtheirsthemselves

PERSONAL PRONOUN

  • SUBJECT PRONOUN
  • OBJECT PRONOUN

SUBJECT PRONOUNS

Subject pronouns update nouns that are the topic of their clause. Within the 3rd person, subject pronouns are regularly often used to prevent the repetition of the subject’s name.

As the subject of a sentence, they are: I, you, he, she, it, we, they

EXAMPLES

  • I am 16.
  • Youappear lost.
  • Aryan is angry, and he wishes Suraj to apologize.
  • This desk is old. Itdesires to be repainted.
  • We aren’t coming.
  • They do not like pancakes.

OBJECT PRONOUNS

Object pronouns are used to replace nouns that are the direct or oblique object of a clause.

As the object of the sentence, they are: me, you, her, him, it, us, them

EXAMPLES

  • Give the book to me.
  • The trainer wants to speak to you.
  • Tarun is hurt because Bill hit him.
  • Rudra received a letter from herprevious week.
  • Rohan can’t find it.
  • Don’t be angry with us.
  • Tell them to hurry up!

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN

  • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (DETERMINERS)
  • POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (DETERMINERS)

Possessive adjectives aren’t pronouns, however, rather determiners.

It is useful to learn them at the identical time as pronouns, however, because they’re comparable in form to possessive pronouns.

Possessive adjectives function as adjectives so that they appear before the noun they modify. They do not replace a noun as pronouns do.

Possessive adjectives show ownership or possession of a noun. They’re my, our, your, his, her, its (be aware there is no apostrophe), their.

EXAMPLES

  • Did mother find my shoes?
  • Mrs. Choudhary wants to work outyour homework.
  • Can Mohan bring over his baseball cards?
  • Rithika will fix her bike tomorrow.
  • The cat broke its leg.
  • This is our house.
  • Where is their school?

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Possessive pronouns replace possessive nouns as either the topic or the subject of a clause. Because the noun being replaced doesn’t appear within the sentence, it must be clear from the context.

EXAMPLES

  • This bag is mine.
  • Yours isn’t blue.
  • That bag looks as ifhis.
  • These shoes are not hers.
  • That car is ours.
  • Theirsare parked within the garage.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

Reflexive and in-depth pronouns are the identical set of phrases however they need special functions in a very sentence.

Reflexive pronouns refer again to the topic of the clause because the problem of action is additionally the direct or oblique object.

Only certain varieties of verbs can be reflexive. You can’t remove a reflexive pronoun from a sentence because the remaining sentence would be grammatically incorrect.

They are: myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves

EXAMPLES

  • I told myself to cool down.
  • Did you cutyourselfduring this nail?
  • He hurt himselfat the steps.
  • She found herself in an exceedingly dangerous part of town.
  • The cat threw itselfbelow my automobile!
  • We blame ourselves for the fire accident.
  • The children can make sure to take care of themselves.

INTENSIVE PRONOUNS

Intensive pronouns emphasize the topic of a clause. They aren’t the thing of the action. The in-depth pronoun can always be eliminated from a sentence without converting the meaning significantly, although the stress on the topic will be removed.

Intensive pronouns can be positioned without delay after the topic of the clause, or at the end of the clause.

They are: myself, himself, herself, themselves, itself, yourself, yourselves, ourselves

EXAMPLES

  • I made those cookies myself.
  • The Pope himself pardoned Mr. Brown.
  • My trainer didn’t know the answerherself.
  • The test itself wasn’t scary, however, my trainer surely is.
  • We would wish to finish the renovation earlier than Christmas ourselves.

INDEFINITE PRONOUN

Indefinite pronouns don’t refer to a specific individual, place, or thing. In English, there’s a selected group of indefinite pronouns shaped with a quantifier or distributive preceded by any, some, every, and no.

PersonPlaceThing
Alleveryone
everybody
everywhereeverything
Part (positive)someone
somebody
somewheresomething
Part (negative)anyone
anybody
anywhereanything
Noneno one
nobody
nowherenothing

Indefinite pronouns withme and any are accustomed to explaining indefinite and incomplete quantities within the same way that some and any are used alone.

Indefinite pronouns are placed within the same location as a noun would get in the sentence.

NounIndefinite pronoun
I would wish to visit Delhi this summer.I would wish to headsomewhere this summer.
Ram gave me this book.Someone gave me this book.
I won’t tell your secret to Rohan.I won’t tell your secret to anyone.
I bought my school supplies at the mall.I bought everything at the mall.

AFFIRMATIVE

In affirmative sentences, indefinite pronouns using some are used to explain an indefinite quantity, the indefinite pronouns with every are used to explain a complete quantity, and also the pronouns with no are accustomedto explaining an absence. Indefinite pronouns with no are often employed in affirmative sentences with a negative meaning, however, these are nevertheless not negative sentences thanks to the fact they’re lacking the word not.on

EXAMPLES

  • Everyone is sleeping in my bed.
  • Someone is sleeping in my bed.
  • No one is sleeping in my bed.
  • I gave everything to Siddharth.
  • He saw something in the garden.
  • There is nothing to drink.
  • I saweverywhere for my keys.
  • Rohan is looking for somewhere to live.
  • There is nowhere as stunning as Paris.

Any and the indefinite pronouns shaped with it can also be used in affirmative sentences with a meaning that is close to every: whichever person, whichever place, whichever thing, etc.

EXAMPLES

  • They can choose anything from the menu.
  • You might also invite anybody you want to your birthday party.
  • We can go anywhere you’d like this summer.
  • He would give anything to get into Oxford.
  • Fido would follow you anywhere.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES

Negative sentences can only be shaped with indefinite pronouns that include any.

EXAMPLES

  • I don’t have anything to eat.
  • She didn’t go anywhere last week.
  • I can not findanyone to come with me.

Many negative sentences that include an indefinite pronoun with any can be turned into affirmative sentences with a negative meaning by using an indefinite pronoun with no. However, there is a change in meaning with this transformation: the sentence that includes an indefinite pronoun with no is stronger, and can suggest emotional content such as defensiveness, hopelessness, anger, etc.

EXAMPLES

  • I don’t know anything about it. = neutral
  • I know nothing about it. = defensive
  • I don’t have anybody to talk to. = neutral
  • I have nobody to talk to. = hopeless
  • There wasn’t anything we could do. = neutral
  • There was nothing we could do. = defensive/angry

NEGATIVE QUESTIONS

Indefinite pronouns with everysome, and any can be used to form negative questions. These questions can commonly be answered with a “yes” or a “no”

Pronouns shaped with any and everyis used to form true questions, whereas those with some generally suggest a query to which we already know or suspect the answer.

EXAMPLES

  • Is there anything to eat?
  • Did you go anywhere last night?
  • Is everyone here?
  • Have you looked everywhere?

These questions can be turned into false or rhetorical questions by making them negative. The speaker, when posing a query of this type, is expecting a solution of “no”.

EXAMPLES

  • Isn’t there anything to eat?
  • Didn’t you go anywhere last night?
  • Isn’teveryone here?
  • Haven’t you looked everywhere?

Some and pronouns shaped with it are only used in questions to which we think we already realize the answer or questions that aren’t true questions (invitations, requests, etc.) The person asking these questions is expecting a solution of “Yes”.

EXAMPLES

  • Are you looking for someone?
  • Have you lost something?
  • Are you going somewhere?
  • Could somebody help me, please? = request
  • Would you like to go somewhere this weekend? = invitation

These questions can be made even more definite if they are made negative. In this case, the speaker is certain he will receive the answer “Yes”.

EXAMPLES

  • Aren’t you looking for someone?
  • Haven’t you lost anything?
  • Aren’t you going somewhere?
  • Couldn’t somebody help me, please?
  • Wouldn’t you like to go somewhere this weekend?

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Demonstratives show where an object, event, or person is about the speaker. They can refer to a physical or a psychological closeness or distance. When speaking about events, the near demonstratives are often used to refer to the present while the far demonstratives often refer to the past.

Near the speakerFar from the speaker
AdverbHereThere
Demonstrative with singular nouns
& uncountable nouns
ThisThat
Demonstrative with
plural countable nouns
TheseThose

DEMONSTRATIVE USAGE

EXAMPLES

Near the speakerFar from the speaker
Is this John’s house?Is that John’s house over there?
This is a nice surprise!That must have been a nice surprise for you.
These apples are mine.Those apples are yours.
What are you up to these days?Those days are long gone.
This time I won’t be late.We surprised you that time.
This sugar is for my crepes.You can use that sugar for your cake.

SENTENCE PLACEMENT

Demonstratives can be positioned earlier than the noun or the adjective that modifies the noun.

EXAMPLES

  • This blue automobile needs to be washed next.
  • Those peoplehave been here first.
  • That metal rod should work.
  • These oranges are delicious.

Demonstratives can also appear earlier than a number by itself when the noun is understood from the context.

EXAMPLES

  • I’d like to attempt on that one.
  • This one is broken.
  • I’ll take these three.
  • Those two aren’t as pretty as these two.

Demonstratives can be used by themselves when the noun they modify is understood from the context.

EXAMPLES

  • I’ll never overlookthis.
  • That has nothing to do with me.
  • I didn’t ask for these.
  • Those aren’t mine.

Interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask who has done what, to whom, why, with what, etc. Normally these pronouns are placed at the beginning of the sentence; then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions shaped with “do/does“.

One chooses the pronoun based on its function, according to the following table:

GRAMMATICAL SUBJECTGRAMMATICAL OBJECTOBJECT OF PREPOSITION
PERSONWHOWHOMWHOM
THINGWHATWHATWHAT
PRONOUN OF SELECTIONWHICH (ONE)WHICH (ONE)WHICH (ONE)

subject (person): who + query

  • Who did this painting?
  • Who wants to get ice cream?

subject (thing): what + query

  • What interests you?
  • What is good in this restaurant?

the direct object (person): whom + query

  • Whom did you see in France?
  • Whom are you going to meet at this reception?

the direct object (thing): what + query

  • What do you want to do this evening?
  • What are you preparing?

the object of a preposition (person): preposition + whom + query

  • Aboutwhom are you thinking?
  • Withwhom did you go out?

Note: In spoken English, one often places the preposition at the end of the sentence, in which case one uses “who” instead of “whom

  • Who are you thinking about?
  • Who did you go out with?

the object of a preposition (thing): preposition + what + query

  • With what did you open it?
  • In what way does that concern you?

Note: In spoken English, the preposition is often put at the end of the sentence:

  • What did you open it with?
  • What did they base their opinion on?

Which, which one, which ones.

The adjective “which” and its pronominal forms (“which“, “which one“, “which ones“) ask that a person make a choice. Usually, these pronouns will be placed at the beginning of the sentence

  • Which film do you want to see?
  • Which date did you choose?
  • Here are two pizzas. Which one do you prefer?
  • There are many special Burgundy wines. Which ones do you like?

RELATIVE PRONOUNS:

Relative pronouns introduce the relative clause. They are useful to make clear what is being discussed in a sentence. They describe something more about the subject or the object.

The relative pronouns are:

SubjectObjectPossessionUncertainty
WhichWhichWhoseWhichever —- (for things)
ThatThat—- (for both things and people)
WhoWhomWhoseWhoever/whomever/whoever —- (for person)


Example:

  • The car that was stolen was the one they loved most.
  • A person who loves nature is good.
  • Our school, which was founded in 1959, is being renovated.
  • I will accept whichever party dress you buy me on Ganesh Chaturthi.
  • Whoever you are behind this great initiative, I want to thank you.

Definition of Relative Pronouns:

relative pronoun works as a connector between two clauses. It introduces a relative clause. Relative pronoun

are that, whom, who, whose, which.

Example of Relative Pronouns: 

  • Bharat is a king who rules the seven kingdoms.
  • The seven kingdoms which are ruled by dissimilar houses answer to him.
  • Siddharth only trusts Narender who is a friend of his sister.
  • Ramesh is the governor of the massive kingdom.
  • They have a slogan that is “summer is coming”.
  • Don’t make comments that aren’t appropriate in this situation.
  • I don’t realize who’s automobile is this.
  • I realize who you are dating.
  • I heard stories that were filled with both humor and amusement.
  • Give me the book which is near the table.
  • The person whom you met yesterday is a teacher.
  • I bought a cricket bat which belonged to Krishna.
  • The questions that have been asked by my teacher were unanswered.
  • I don’t realize whose bat it was.

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